In the landmark agreement, formally known as the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) — reached in 2015 between Iran, the United States, China, France, Russia and the United Kingdom — Iran agreed to cut much of its nuclear program. and dismantle its facilities to international inspections in exchange for sanctions relief.
In 2018, then-President Trump withdrew the US from the agreement and reinstated sanctions.
The #JCPOA was a triumph for non-proliferation and multilateralism. Are we ready to watch the painstaking efforts of many years slip away? I hope that Iran and the US will build on the talks facilitated by the European Union in recent days to resolve any remaining issues. https://t.co/PeN3OUb7Rx
— Rosemary A. DiCarlo (@DicarloRosemary) June 30, 2022
†Reaching the JCPOA milestone took determined diplomacy. Restoring it requires extra effort and patiencesaid Rosemary DiCarlo, UN chief political affairs officer.
Although the historic Joint Commission to Restore the Plan resumed in November 2021, it acknowledged that despite their determination to resolve the issues, the US and other participants have yet to return to “full and effective implementation of the Plan, and [Security Council] resolution 2231”.
Attractive to both
Together with the secretary general, she urged Iran and the US to “mobilize quickly” in “spirit and commitment” to resume cooperation under the JCPOA.
They welcomed the US reinstatement in February of waivers on nuclear non-proliferation projects and called on the country to lift its sanctions, as outlined in the plan, and extend the oil trade waivers.
Together, they also called on Iran to reverse steps it has taken that are inconsistent with its nuclear commitments under the plan.
While the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has not been able to verify Iran’s stockpile of enriched uranium, it estimates that there are currently more than 15 times the allowable amount under the JCPOA, including uranium enriched to 20 and 60 percent, which Ms. DiCarlo called “extremely worrying”.
In addition, on June 8-20, the IAEA reported that Iran had begun installing additional advanced centrifuges at its fuel enrichment plant in Natanz and began feeding uranium into advanced centrifuges at its fuel enrichment plant in Fordow.
In his latest report, IAEA Director-General Rafael Grossi informed the Council that the UN agency’s ability to verify and confirm the peaceful nature of Iran’s nuclear activities is critical to the full and effective implementation of the JCPOA.
Iran’s decision to remove the cameras from the site and place them and the data they collected under Agency seals “could have damaging consequences”.
Improved ‘key’ relationships
Bilateral and regional initiatives to improve relations with Iran remain “key” and, according to Ms. DiCarlo, should be encouraged and built upon.
In addition, Member States and the private sector are urged to use available trade tools to engage with Iran, and Tehran is urged to address their concerns regarding Resolution 2231 (2015) on its nuclear issues.
The senior UN official also drew attention to Annex B of the resolution, which informs ambassadors in the Council about nuclear-related provisions, ballistic missiles and asset freezing.
We hope diplomacy will prevail – political leader of the UN
Triumph for multilateralism
†The JCPOA was a triumph for non-proliferation and multilateralism‘ said the UN’s head of political affairs.
However, after many years of uncertainty, she warned that the plan is now at a “critical juncture” and encouraged Iran and the US to build on recent momentum to resolve remaining issues.
“The Secretary-General is convinced that there is only one path to lasting peace and security for all member states, and that is the path based on dialogue and cooperation,” she said. “We hope diplomacy will prevail”.